A person acquires all of his/her DNA at the time of conception. This DNA remains the same throughout their lifetime. SurScan provides DNA test results that are admissible in most courts of law.
The most common DNA tests are for the following purposes:
DNA paternity testing determines whether a man could be the biological father of a child. We all inherit DNA from our biological parents. A DNA paternity test compares a child's DNA patter with that of the alleged father to check for evidence of this inheritance. This test provides the most definitive proof of a biological relationship.
The result of a DNA paternity test is either an exclusion (the alleged father is not the biological father), or an inclusion (the alleged father is considered the biological father).
Maternity DNA testing determines whether a woman could be the biological mother of a child. Like a DNA paternity test, it compares a child's DNA pattern with that of the alleged mother to determine how likely it is that the child has inherited the DNA from the alleged mother.
Maternity test results may be used in the following circumstances:
In a maternity test, the child, alleged mother, and biological father are tested. The father's participation in the maternity test helps to exclude half of the child's DNA, leaving the rest for comparison with the alleged mother. If the father is not available, we can perform a fatherless test.
A grandparentage test determines whether a couple could be the biological grandparents of a child. It is an indirect way to determine family relationships when an alleged father is not available for a paternity test. These types of test may be used as proof in Social Security benefit and other inheritance claims as well as in some immigration cases.
In the test, the child's DNA profile is compared with the DNA profiles of the alleged father's biological parents. Since a child inherits half of his/her DNA from the mother (maternal side) and half from the father (paternal side), the paternal half should match DNA passed down from the alleged grandparents. The mother's participation is encouraged to expedite analysis; motherless grandparentage tests take longer to complete because of the extended analysis required.
In genetic reconstruction, a series of DNA tests are conducted to determine whether or not a child is related to the alleged father's close relatives. It is an indirect way to determine family relationships when an alleged father is not available for a paternity test. Results of genetic reconstruction may be used as proof in Social Security benefit and other inheritance claims.
In the test, the child's DNA profile is compared with the DNA profiles of at least two of the alleged father's close relatives. A close relative may be a full sibling or a biological parent. Each individual's DNA profile is unique, but close relatives will share a significant portion of their DNA profiles because of the hereditary nature of DNA.
Genetic reconstruction requires complex analytical methods. If only two of the alleged father's close relative are available to take the test, participation of the child's mother is required. If the child's mother is not available, we can only perform the test with the participation of at least three close relatives of the alleged father.
A siblingship test is a DNA test conducted to determine if two children share one or both parents (i.e., if they are half or full siblings). It is an indirect way to determine family relationships when an alleged father is not available for a paternity test. Results of a siblingship test may be used as proof in Social Security benefit and other inheritance claims.
A siblingship test starts with the analysis of known relatives:
1. Sibling 1 and Sibling 2 do not share the same mother and they want to find out if they share the same biological father-in this situation, a half siblingship test is performed.
2. Sibling 1 and Sibling 2 share the same biological mother but are unsure if they share the same biological father-in this situation, a full siblingship test is performed.
In the test, the siblings' DNA profiles are compared to see how much of their DNA could have come from a common father. Participation of the mother(s) is encouraged to help exclude the mother's contribution to the children's DNA. Siblingship tests require more analysis, and they could be more costly and take a longer time to complete without the mother's participation.
A twin zygosity test is a DNA test that definitively shows whether twins are identical or fraternal.
During OB-GYN visits, the physician might be able to tell whether twins are identical or fraternal through ultrasound examination of the placenta. When the twins are born, pathological examination of the placenta can also be done to determine zgosity. However, studies have shown that either method is not 100% accurate, and scientists recommend DNA testing to determine zygosity. There are also many cases in which medical records regarding zygosity have been lost, or doubt may have arisen because of the twins' physical characteristics as the grow up.
In such cases, only a DNA test will be able to reveal the truth. A twin zygosity test compares the twins DNA profiles to see whether they match-an exact match proves that the twins are identical.
The results of a twin zygosity test may be used to satisfy personal curiosity as well as to help solve health problems for the twins later down the road. For example, in the event that a twin needs an organ or tissue transplant donor, the identical twin is a perfect choice.
Twins Identical twins come from one fertilized egg, called a zygote. The zygote, which usually develops into one child, grows and splits early in development to form two embryos-identical twins. Because the twins come from one egg and one sperm, they have exactly the same DNA. Fraternal twins, on the other hand, develop when there are two different eggs in the mother's womb that are fertilized by two different sperms.
Fraternal twins will not have exactly the same DNA, although like other siblings, they can be expected to share some of the DNA they inherit from both parents.